Phenomena EU

continued from » New Millennium

EU

Why is the EU (=European Union) a phenomena?

It is (one of) the most important integration of nations to form a union, so that every country within this union can profit from its agreements.

To get a clue of the development in Europe, until it reached its final state, here is an historic overview:

1947

Customs Union between Belgium, Netherlands and Luxembourg: BENELUX

1948

Brussels’s agreement – defense agreement between Great Britain, France, Netherlands, Luxembourg and Belgium (1954: also Italy and Germany): NATO (=North Atlantic Treaty Organization)

1949

European Council

04/18/1951

Formation of the European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC) in Paris (countries: France, West-Germany, Italy, Netherlands, Belgium, Luxembourg)

1952

European Defense Community

03/25/1957

Formation of the European Economic Community (EEC) and the European Atomic Energy Community (EURATOM) in Rome (Treaties of Rome) (countries: France, West-Germany, Italy, Netherlands, Belgium, Luxembourg)

1962

Agreement of Common Agricultural Policy (CAP)

07/01/1968

Completion of Customs Union: abolition of tariffs among member states and launching of standardized external tariff

1972

Agreement of additional Community Policies: Regional, Energy and Environment Policy

01/01/1973

European Community – expansion: Denmark, Ireland, Great Britain

1979

Activation of the European Monetary System (EMS)

01/01/1981

European Community – expansion (first expansion southwards): Greece

1985

Agreement of the first reform of the European Community’s treaties (from 01/01/1987: Single European Act as an internal market)

01/01/1986

European Community – expansion: Spain, Portugal

1991

Agreement of the second reform of the European Community’s treaties (EU, “Treaty of Maastricht” on 02/07/1992)

1992

European Community and EFTA (European Free Trade Agreement): common economic area (EEA= European Economic Area)

1995

European Community – expansion: Austria, Finland, Sweden

01/01/2002

Launching of the EURO

05/01/2005

European Community – expansion: Cyprus, Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Malta, Poland, Slovenia, Slovakia

01/01/2007

European Community – expansion: Bulgaria, Romania

(changed after the lecture of Ossenbruegge, and www.europa.eu)

There had been several steps to reach the final integration including coordination (agreements manifested in contracts), cooperation (“teamwork” by working on the same goals), and then integration (to become one meaning decisions made together). The countries of the EU formed several types of integration, e.g. free trade zone, one single market, economic union and political union.

The first integration (1958) was very successful due to a tremendous economic growth in the 1950s and 1960s. At the same time, there have been a high internal dynamic as well as a growing external trade, which were a good foundation on economic-political grounds integration; so more and more countries joined.

During the crisis in the 1970s (conditioned by Fordism), “Eurosclerosis” spread. That means the integration stagnated and nations began to step back to national economic politics.

After that crisis, the integration made several steps forward by deregulating and harmonizing of the European Community’s economic area including material, technical and fiscal barriers.

At the moment the EU is struggling after the Great Recession.

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